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Vegetable Farming. Livestock Farming. Are you thinking of growing Dwarf Coconut trees? Well, you are in right place.
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The coconut tree belongs to the palm family and is considered the only living species of the Cocos genus. Coconuts are expected to have originated from the India-Indonesia region. Coconut refers to the entire palm; it is botanically a drupe and not a nut. The inner flesh of the Coconut is an important part of food for the people of the tropics and subtropics.
This fruit or drupe is considered highly versatile due to its use in a wide range of products from food to cosmetics. This fruit is different from other fruits because it contains a clear liquid in the endosperm and is generally called as Coconut milk. In India Coconut finds significance in religion and culture and is most commonly used for various rituals. Coconut cultivation is found in more than 90 countries producing 59 million tonnes annually, of which India alone produces 12 million tonnes on an average every year.
Tamil Nadu accounts for the largest production in the country of aboutThe roots of the tree do not have hair and are not tap roots.The primary roots bear large quantities of rootlets and the main root grows horizontally from the bole. The root branches grow deeper into the soil and extend laterally to about 10 m.
The maximum diameter of the main root is 1 cm and the roots are almost uniform. The tip of the root is the active growing region and behind this there is an absorbing area with a single layered epidermis. When the roots are old, the epidermis disintegrates and generally looks red due to exposed hypodermis.
The stem or trunk is encircled by the leaf base. The scars on the trunk determine the age of the tree and the trunk growth is noticeable in the first few years of planting. The thickness of the trunk or girth remains constant or uniform for many years, but gradually decreases as the tree grows older. The new young leaves appear in the centre of the crown and it almost takes 5 months for the complete development of the leaf. It is approximately estimated that a single Coconut tree may have around 15 open leaves with 15 young leaves still emerging or at different stages of development.
Each leaf is long, linear with a short mid-rib, narrow lamina and parallel venation. The petiole of the leaf is flat, thick, broad and sheather with fibre. The inflorescence develops after 34 months from planting. Enclosed by a tough spathe is the spadix that is stout and erect. The plant or tree is monoecious in nature i. There are six stamens and contain many pollen grains that are spherical in shape.
The fruits develop from a tricapillary ovary and are drupe. The outer layer is called the pericarp which is green initially, but turns brown upon drying and is fibrous in nature; the endocarp is generally hard and forms the shell.
This endocarp encloses a soft white endosperm, which contains a big cavity filled with extra cellular fluid. Coconuts are available in two different varieties: the tall and the dwarf.Sometimes the hybrid varieties are also cultivated depending on the availability of labour and water. Land that is at least 1. The type of soil that is suited for Coconut is red sandy loam, laterite or alluvial. Heavy soil base in the low lying areas and having a hard rocky structure underneath should be avoided.
The soil should have good water holding capacity and should also have adequate sand content. The pH of the soil necessary for Coconut plants is 5. Coconut plants require an equatorial type of climate with high humidity.
The plants or trees require a well distributed rainfall of mm annually. Depending on the topography of the land and the soil type, preparation of land should be done. Planting holes should be created after the entire cleaning process and if the land is sloppy, proper soil conservation methods should be adopted. Mound planting is taken up if the groundwater level in the area is high.
The best time for planting Coconut seedlings is during may i. With proper irrigation, planting can also be done in the month of April, whereas September planting is undertaken in low-lying regions.
The proper planting distance has to be adopted to avoid the risk of plant overlapping, water completion and unequal water distribution to the plants. Depending on the region, type of soil and weather, planting is carried out accordingly.
The ideal spacing between plants of different varieties is: tall variety 7. The planting system recommendations for Coconut farming are triangular, square, single hedge and double hedge with planting densities , , , plants per hectare respectively. Each region has a different planting style and one such method is to dig pits of dimensions 3 x 3 x 3 ft and fill them with equal proportions of FYM, red earth and sand to a height of 60 cm within the pit. Plant the seedling at the centre of the pit and press the soil around the seedling.
Similarly, in regions with loamy soil and low water table prefer a pit size of 1 x 1 x 1 m, in lateritic soil with rocky base prefer a pit size of 1. Seed nuts are used to grow new Coconut plants and for this selecting a good quality mother plant of the desired variety is extremely important. The most important features of a mother plant are:. The size of the seed nuts should be regular and medium with oblong or round shape.
Seed nuts are sown in the nursery beds ofNursery beds with poor drainage should have raised beds for proper germination. To avoid termite problem, the beds should be drenched with chlorpyriphos 0.
Seed nuts are soaked for hours before sowing. The nuts should be planted at a distance of 30 x 30 cm in trenches to a depth of cm. The seed nut is either planted horizontally with wide segments at the top or vertically with the stalk end facing outward. The seed nut is then covered with soil such that only husk is visible from the top. Germination is expected within days after sowing for tall varieties and within days for dwarf varieties.
The seedlings are ready for transplantation only after 5 months from sowing. Application of fertilizers and manure to the soil for Coconut cultivation depends largely on the type of soil and its nutrient content.
The general rules of application are:. It should be applied as a basal dose along with FYM. A Coconut tree requires 45 litres of water once in 4 days during summer for the first 2 years of planting. Basin or drip irrigation system from the 3 year onwards is done on the basis of pan evaporation rate. Different pests found on Coconut trees are rhinocerous beetle, Coconut eriophyid mite, red palm weevil, leaf eating caterpillar, slug caterpillar, Coconut skipper, coreid bug, bag worm, white grub, termite, lacewing bug, scale insect, mealy bug, palm civet, rat, nut borer and nematodes.
Managing the pests can be done in three possible ways that is by cultural methods, mechanical methods or by chemical method. Cultural method involves removing the dead and diseased plant parts from the farm and burning them, destroying all bi-stages of beetle from the manure pits, intercropping with sun hemp, providing sufficient irrigation, ploughing the land 4 to 5 times after first rain in summer, planting neem twigs with leaves in the farm area and maintaining field sanitation by proper disposal of waste and organic matter like dry leaves etc.
Mechanical methods include the use of traps for to control the pest infestation in the farm area and chemical method involves the use of recommended pesticides like sevidol, carbaryl, methyl demeton, dichlorvos etc.
Common diseases occurring in Coconut trees are bud rot, tanjore wilt, root disease, leaf rot, grey leaf spot, stem bleeding, leaf blight and crown chocking. It is always advisible to prevent the occurrence of disease rather than control them. Some cultural methods to prevent diseases are proper drainage in the farm, sufficient spacing between the trees, raising green manure crops, removal and destruction of affected plant parts, avoid making mechanical injury to the trunks and maintaining a clean farm area.
When the plants are severely affected by any disease, then recommended dose of chemicals like Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate, carbendazim, copper oxychloride etc.
Periodical weeding is recommended in the farm area and it is also recommended to remove the soil covering the collar of seedlings. Tillage systems which provide proper mulch and control the weeds should be utilized within the farm. The space between the Coconut trees should be ploughed twice in a year.
Broad leaved weeds are controlled by the use of the pre — emergence spray.Lateritic, sandy or red sandy loam soils should be ploughed two times in a year during September-October and May-June followed by one raking in the month of January.
When the yield becomes very low due to old age of the plants, replanting is done. Under planting is also adopted when old trees are removed in stages over a period of 3 to 4 years. Intercropping is practiced in Coconut farms depending on the climate of the region and the type of soil available. At different stages of the Coconut tree, different varieties of crops are grown according to the canopy spread and spacing. When the plants are under 7 years of age, annual crops like groundnut, sesame, sunflower, tapioca, turmeric and banana are grown.
For farms with trees between years of age, green manure crops like Napier grass and guinea grass are grown and farms with trees beyond 20 years of age can be used for cultivating crops like okra, turmeric, banana, pepper, sweet potato etc. Nuts that are 12 months old are harvested at an interval of days for culinary purpose and for making copra. Sometimes, depending on the use, tender nuts that are 7 to 8 months old are also harvested. It is considered that 11 months old nuts have a good fibre quality and are used for coir making.
Nuts are also used for seeding and should be stored for 2 to 3 months after harvest in case of tall variety Coconut and that of the dwarf variety should be sown within 10 to 15 days of harvest.
Each tree can have 8 harvests annually. There are three different recommended methods of harvest, i. While harvesting, the climber cuts the bunch at the base of the stalk such that it drops to the ground, but if tender nuts are being harvested or the ground is very hard, the bunches are lowered using a rope.
The climber as a part of harvest cleans the crown by removing the dry leaves, sheaths and spathes. The average yield from a Coconut tree is expected to be around nuts a year largely depends on the variety and growing conditions.Nuts should be kept in a vertical position for household use. The nuts are de-husked using an iron rod, but since it is a strenuous task, mechanical devices are now being used for this process. In order to achieve this moisture level, copra is dried using different methods like sun drying, smoke drying, kiln drying and by indirect hot air drying.
Copra is susceptible to various kinds of pests and therefore it should be stored properly.
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Maturity: %. Feature: Healthy, Freshness, Good Taste. Fruit Type: Coconut. Life Span: More Than Years. 5Yrs Since: Sk Hitech Nursery.
Product Brochure. Apple Ber Plant is a Thailand variety ber. The taste of this ber is very sweet. The weight of each plum is about gm. It looks similar to green apples.
Stately representatives of sunkissed tropical beaches, dwarf coconut trees Cocos nucifera, USDA zones 10 to 12 are guaranteed to replicate that exotic feeling in your own yard, but at a smaller size.
Check out our new videos here! Top garden fruit varieties. More trees, more fruit, same space! Waimea Nurseries is the leading producer for fruit, nut, berry and ornamental trees for the consumer market in New Zealand. These products are distributed through garden centres and chain stores nationwide.
When one thinks of a tropical beach, they usually picture a palm tree hanging over clear blue water. Indeed, coconut palms are common sights on tropical beaches around the world. Aside from being aesthetically pleasing, coconut palms bear fruit abundantly, and coconut fruits are used in all sorts of products these days. Did you know that there are many different types of coconuts? This article will teach you all about coconuts and the many different varieties of coconut palm trees! The coconut palm is a flowering plant in the palm family Arecaceae. Palms are characterized by having a single, unbranched stem with large compound leaves called fronds. You can find them all over the world as they make up a large portion of the plants in many tropical and subtropical ecosystems.
With the application of good fertilizer accompanied by pollination, the trees bear mature fruits in 12 months of planting for dwarf varieties. The fruits.
For more than two decades, California Tropical Fruit Tree nursery has proven the viability of its inventory for successful long-term growth in Southern California. With a notable inventory of larger-sized stock, California Tropical is also uniquely poised to provide mature trees, in quantity, that are already bearing substantial flowers and fruit. California Tropical Fruit Tree nursery offers landscape architects, contractors, and nurseries in San Diego County and the surrounding area, personalized service, expert advice, and an extensive inventory of trees for any sized project. Currently operating on 20 acres of growing grounds and nursery space, California Tropical is proud to provide landscape professionals an extensive selection of tropical fruit, nut, spice, and flower trees and shrubs, all of which are available in a variety of sizes.
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No one knows exactly where the coconut tree originated. There are coconut palm fossils in nearly every subtropical climate, dating back millions of years ago. Coconuts traveled the world at a leisurely pace, bobbing from continent to continent — occasionally with the helping hand of people from ancient civilizations. Now, you can find coconut fruit in some form in every grocery store. Cocos nucifera needs little in the way of care.
Large coconut palm trees are practically a symbol of resort leisure on Kauai. Many of our clients ask us how much coconut trees cost, and we always like to spell out the numbers when helping our commercial property owners make decisions for their budget, so we explain that there are actually two parts to this simple question. This article will answer those questions and help you understand that the initial price tag on a coconut tree is just the beginning of the cost. Proper coconut tree maintenance is critical because these trees can be true hazards on a property without proper care.